A replaceable component that produces light from electricity is called a lamp. Lamps are commonly called light bulbs; for example, the incandescent light bulb. Lamps usually have a base made of ceramic, metal, glass, or plastic, which secures the lamp in the socket of a light fixture. The electrical connection to the socket may be made with a screw-thread base, two metal pins that fit into a receiving clamp, two metal caps or a bayonet cap. The three main categories of electric lights are incandescent lamps, which produce light by a filament heated white-hot by electric current, gas-discharge lamps, which produce light by means of an electric arc through a gas, and LED lamps, which produce light by a flow of electrons across a band gap in a semiconductor.
A "sensing bulb" is the temperature sensing device (probe) of a thermometer, RTD, or thermistor.
A spacer is a solid material used to separate two parts in an assembly. Spacers can vary in size from microns to centimeters. They can be made of metal, plastic, glass and other materials. Shapes include flat sheet, cylindrical and spherical.
A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint by controlling the supply of gas or electricity to the heating or cooling system. Thermostats are used in any device or system that heats or cools to a setpoint temperature. A thermostat operates as a "closed loop" control device, as it seeks to reduce the error between the desired and measured temperatures. Sometimes a thermostat combines both the sensing and control action elements of a controlled system.
A thermostat exerts control by switching heating or cooling devices on or off, or by regulating the flow of a heat transfer fluid as needed to maintain the correct temperature. A thermostat can often be the main control unit for a heating or cooling system including central heating, air conditioners, as well as kitchen equipment including ovens and refrigerators.
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